‘Aha 2016: a Native Hawaiian Nation’s Constitution


Sen. Shimabukuro was interviewed by Dillon Ancheta of the University of Hawaii’s newspaper, Ka Leo, regarding the ‘Aha.  You can find the interview on Ka Leo’s Facebook page, posted on 04/29/16: https://www.facebook.com/KaLeoOHawaii/, or at this link:


This post provides an update about the nation-building process being undertaken by some Native Hawaiians.

As many of you may know, the organization, Na‘i Aupuni, attempted to organize an election in which Native Hawaiians would elect a group of Native Hawaiians to meet at an ‘aha to draft a constitution. This constitution would be used as a governing document by a future Native Hawaiian Nation. Although a court decision ultimately negated Na‘i Aupuni’s attempt to organize an election, an ‘aha nonetheless proceeded with all 196 election candidates convening on O‘ahu earlier this year to draft a constitution.

According to an ‘aha delegate, the goal of the ‘aha was to keep all options open and to establish a structure for Native Hawaiians to voice a collective will by electing their own government officers. The delegate also stated that the constitution was more about establishing the framework for an independent Nation and less about determining “external relations” such whether the Native Hawaiian Nation will be a Nation-within-a-Nation or secede from the United States

Below are highlights from the constitution:

Which lands will be part of the Native Hawaiian Nation?
The constitution does not specifically determine the answer. The answer will depend on the results of future negotiations with the Hawai‘i State and Federal Governments. The constitution states that it will apply to whatever lands emerge from the negotiations. See Article 1 of the constitution for more details.

Will the Native Hawaiian Nation continue to be part of the United States or will it secede?
The constitution does not specifically determine the answer. The document does specify that the Nation has the right to self-determination, but does not specify what form the Nation must take. See Article 4 of the constitution for more details.

What is the general structure of the Native Hawaiian Nation? E.g. Will it be a monarchy?
The Nation will be composed of three branches of government similar to the Hawai‘i State and United States Federal Governments: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. The functions of each branch are also similar to those found at the state and Federal levels in the United States. Authority also exists to create local governments. See Article 22, Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of the constitution for more details.

Who can be a citizen of the Native Hawaiian Nation?
People of Native Hawaiian ancestry can enroll as citizens of the Nation. Native Hawaiian ancestry is defined as “descendants of the aboriginal and indigenous people who, prior to 1778, occupied and exercised sovereignty in the Hawaiian Islands.” There is no blood quantum requirement.

The constitution does permit the Nation to modify citizenship requirements – i.e. it would be possible for the Nation to amend the constitution to allow non-Hawaiians to become citizens.

Citizenship in the Nation will not impact United States Citizenship. See Articles 2 and 9 of the constitution for more details.

Who can vote in Native Hawaiian Nation elections?
Citizens of the Nation who are 18 years of age or older can vote. See Article 2 of the constitution for more details.

What language(s) will be spoken in the Native Hawaiian Nation?
‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i (a.k.a. Hawaiian) will be the national language. ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i and English will be the official languages. See Article 3 of the constitution for more details.

What types of individual rights will be protected?
The constitution protects a number of individual liberties that the United States Constitution protects. Rights like due process of law, equal protection, freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures, and the right to bear arms will all be protected in the Native Hawaiian Nation. See Article 6 of the constitution for more details.

 What customary rights will individuals possess?
Citizens of the Native Hawaiian Nation will have the right to exercise traditional cultural, medicinal, and religious practices. See Article 7 of the constitution for more details.

 What will the Native Hawaiian Nation be prohibited from doing?
The Nation cannot pass laws abridging a citizen’s right to make end of life decisions. It also cannot take private property without just compensation, favor a particular religion, or infringe on freedoms of speech or the press. See Article 8 of the constitution for more details.

Is this the final constitution?
No. After the Nation is established, a ratification election shall occur to affirm the constitution. This was also done for the Hawai‘i State and United States Federal Constitutions. The Nation’s constitution also states that citizens will be able to vote on whether a convention to amend the constitution should be convened. See Articles 50 and 51 of the constitution for more details.


If you’re interested in learning more about the ‘aha or the Native Hawaiian Nation, click on these links:
‘Aha 2016
Native Hawaiian Nation (a copy of the constitution can be obtained at this site)

Civil Beat article by OHA trustee Peter Apo:



May Day Ho’olaulea at NHIS

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Hawaii Lifeguard Goes Above And Beyond For Veteran In Wheelchair


This is what the spirit of aloha is all about.

Landess Kearns Associate Editor, HuffPost Hawaii

Photo courtesy of George Kalilikane

In Hawaii, showing others “aloha” is the golden rule.

Lifeguard Hizson Keali’i, Sr. recently showed the generous spirit in spades when he helped fulfill the dream of a veteran who uses a wheelchair.

U.S. Army veteran Mike Hicks was recently visiting the Hawaiian island of Oahu with his wife, Ann. The two enjoyed watching the waves at Pililaau Army Recreation Center in Waianae, but an accident that left Mike unable to walk kept him from getting in the water.

Ann decided to approach Keali’i’s lifeguard stand and told him Mike’s story: how Mike wanted badly to dip his toes in the ocean, but he was in a wheelchair.

“It touched my heart, ‘cause I’m blessed everyday to be able to do what someone else only dreams of,” Keali’i, 45, told The Huffington Post. So he told the couple to come back the next morning.

The following day, using a beach wheelchair to navigate a bank of sand (learn more at bestmotorizedwheelchair.com), Keali’i guided Mike down to the water.

It was Mike’s first time back in the ocean since the accident, and Keali’i said simply wading in the shore break made him grin ear-to-ear.

And that was just the first day. Last Wednesday, Mike and his wife returned to the beach, eager to get Mike in the water a second time.

This time, Keali’i had something more adventurous in mind: taking Mike surfing.

He carried Mike into the water, helped him onto a stand-up paddleboard, and paddled his fearless passenger into some waves. By the look on Mike’s face, the experience was everything he’d hoped for and more.

It was “a fantastic feeling of speed and freedom,” Mike told HuffPost. “Something I never thought I would ever feel again.”

George Kalilikane, a friend of Keali’i’s, managed to capture the entire thing on camera. “My mind said, ‘Dude, this is a Kodak moment!” he wrote on Facebook.

“As I took pictures the man’s wife came over and started sharing his story,” Kalilikane wrote. “A year and a half ago he broke his back and had lost use of everything below his waist.” She explained that Mike had a bucket list, and surfing was on it.

With a little aloha, Keali’i was able to make that dream come true.

“Mike’s wife, Ann, touched my heart,” Keali’i told HuffPost. “That first impression had me at hello.”

Full article with all photos here: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/army-veteran-surfing-hawaii_us_571a927de4b0d0042da94c22

Ahupua’a Explained

Taken from an article by By Kealiʻiwahine Hokoana ( https://millhousemaui.com/ahupuaa-crops-fishponds/ )

Although specifically referring to the island of Maui in this article, the ahupua’a system is statewide and the principles of it apply to each ahupua’a.


Each of the Hawaiian islands is divided into moku, or districts. Maui has the following moku: Wailuku, Hāmākuapoko, Hāmākualoa, Koʻolau, Hāna, Kīpahulu, Kaupō, Kahikinui, Honuaʻula, Kula, Lahaina, Kaʻanapali.ahupuaa-diagram


Each moku is further divided into ahupuaʻa. *Ahu means altar and puaʻa means pig. The boundaries of an ahupuaʻa are marked with an altar of stones and an image of a pig. The altar is also used to pay tribute to the chief of the ahupuaʻa for the use of the land by the people.

Ahupuaʻa is a division of land that stretches from the mountain to the ocean. Think of it like a lemon meringue pie. If you cut a slice, there is the tippy top of the meringue like the mountain and a crust like the ocean shore.

 The reason an ahupuaʻa goes from the mountain to the ocean is because of its access to water. Every ahupuaʻa needs water to subsist. *Wai in Hawaiian means water. Waiwai in Hawaiian means wealth. If you have access to water you are wealthy.



At the very top of the ahupuaʻa is the lewa, which means sky, where the rain comes from to fill up the stream. A portion of the stream is diverted by an auwai which is a ditch that leads to loʻi kalo or taro patches. The taro patches need cold, swift moving water to thrive. The loʻi are built into the natural terraces of the land. The higher patches pass water to the lower terraces. The water from the lower terraces are then rerouted back to the stream.

When Polynesians first landed in Hawaiʻi they brought canoe plants. The canoe food plants are mountain apple, sugar cane, banana, sweet potato, yams, coconut, breadfruit, ape and taro (which we call kalo). The loʻi kalo are important because kalo was the main staple of the Hawaiian diet.


Kalo was given to us by the gods Wākea (the sky) and Hoʻohōkūlani (the stars). When they came together their first child was born a root named Hāloanakalaukapalili. That root was cast to the earth and from that root came the kalo. Their second child was born a man named Hāloa. He was sent to the earth to care for his brother the kalo. As long as man takes care of the kalo, he will survive.

Kalo is a living metaphor for family. A stalk is planted in the loʻi. From that stalk, a corm grows to fruition in about nine months. Also from that stalk, keiki, which means child(ren), will sprout. The whole cluster is called an ʻoha(na) which means family. The original stalk then becomes known as the makua which means the parent.
When harvesting kalo, you use two parts of the plant. The top heart-shaped leaf and the corm. A small piece of corm is left on the stalk and the stalk will be replanted and another generation of kalo will be born.

Both the leaf and the corm are edible, however they must be cooked thoroughly (for hours) before they are edible. They can be boiled, steamed or baked in an under ground oven called an imu. If either are under cooked your throat will become itchy and swollen. It will feel like you ate broken glass.


The cooked kalo can be made into poi. Back in the day, poi was made using a pōhaku kuʻi ʻai, a stone pounder and a papa kuʻi ʻai, a wooden board. The kalo was pounded, turned, mixed with water and pounded again and again until it became a sticky paste we call poi.

Today, most people buy poi. Instead of using a poi pounder and board, the manufacturer uses a corn meal grinder to make the poi. People’s taste preference for poi differ. Some people like fresh poi and others like varying degrees of sour. The color of the twist tie on the plastic bag of poi will tell you what day of the week the poi was made so you know how many days sour it is. Some people will eat poi that is so sour there is a thick crust of mold on the top. They simply crack the crust, mix it up and eat it. Think blue cheese, smell and all.

Loko iʻa – Fish Ponds

Loʻi kalo are a big part of the ahupuaʻa food system. Another big part is the loko iʻa which means fish ponds. Fish ponds are made in the ocean using a semi-circle rock wall. The rocks are intricately stacked so that they stay in place without mortar. A small gate is fixed in the wall. The gate is made of vertical wooden slats lashed together with cordage. The purpose of the gate is to allow small fish to swim inside the pond where the water is warmer and the food is plentiful. It’s a safe harbor from bigger fish who prey on them. hawaiian-fish-pond.jpg

Once the fish see how easy life is in the pond they tend to stay or they tend to leave and return. Eventually the fish will become too fat to leave through the wooden slats and will have no choice but to stay in the pond until they are harvested for food.


Back in the day, fish were regulated by the kapu system. The kapu system was the laws of the land. Fish and other food were part of this system to ensure that there was a time for the ahupuaʻa to replenish itself. So, for certain times of the year certain fish were kapu (prohibited) from eating. The penalty for breaking this kapu could be death. Some people may think this was a harsh penalty for a chief to issue, but think of it as your whole village’s food system being at stake. If one person or family broke the rule, there might not be another generation of food to continue to feed the people.

The kapu system was in place until 1819 when Kamehameha the sovereign ruler of the Hawaiian islands died. Two of his wives, Keōpūolani (the most sacred wife) and Kaʻahumanu (the favorite wife) in a public display broke the kapu system.

Welcome newest Island Burial Council Appointees!

Island Burial Council Appointees Beverly Amaral and Norman “Mana” Caceres were confirmed by a full Senate floor vote today (GM 743/744, GM 777). Also up for full senate floor vote today was Appointee Charles “Aulii” Mitchell (GM 625) who was unable to attend. Beverly was joined by friend Paulette Kaikini and Mana was joined by his wife and daughter, Kamana and Kalehua. Congratulations to all!IMG_5252

Hire Leeward Job and Career Fair – June 25th, 2016

HL Header
Mark your calendars, job seekers! The Hire Leeward Job and Career Fair is coming back to UH West Oahu on June 25, 2016 from 9am – 1pm.
If you or your company are interested in a table at the event for hiring purposes, please see the link for more information below.

Paid Summer Internship in Washington, DC

Interested in working on higher education issues facing Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders? Consider applying for this internship with the Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund in Washington, DC. The position pays $10/hour and has an application deadline of May 5, 2016.

Additional information about the internship can be found at this site or below:


Based in Washington, D.C., the Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund (APIASF) is the nation’s largest non-profit provider of college scholarships for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI). APIASF creates opportunities for students to access, complete, and succeed after post-secondary education; thereby developing future leaders who will excel in their careers, serve as role models in their communities, and will ultimately contribute to a more vibrant America. For more information, please visit www.apiasf.org.

The Pacific Islander Access (PIA) project was established to provide resources for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students to increase access to higher education, and increase organizational expertise and community awareness of NHPI educational issues through collaboration and strategic alliances.

The Intern for the Pacific Islander Access (PIA) project will support the Programs and Scholarships team. This position is based in APIASF’s Washington DC headquarters. Successful applicants will work on a mix of NHPI focused efforts and provide general support for APIASF’s Programs and Scholarships initiatives.

Note: This is a 10-week paid ($10/hour) temporary internship with an expected commitment of 30-35 hours per week.


  • Support APIASF Scholarships and Programs on various administrative tasks:
  • Assist with the execution of the PIA project
  • Research scholarship, grant, internship, and career opportunities for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander students
  • Support the implementation of the APIASF leadership blog
  • Assist with Scholar programming logistics for APIASF events
  • Support staff with organizing files and mailing materials
  • Perform additional duties as assigned


  • Education and Experience
  • Experience in data entry and file management preferred
  • Experience working in an office setting with the ability to support multiple projects
  • Ability to work with strict deadlines
  • Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
  • Demonstrated interest in issues related to higher education access and retention within Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities
  • Ability to work independently and in team settings in a fast paced environment
  • Must be detail-oriented
  • High proficiency with the Microsoft Office Suite


Please submit a cover letter outlining qualifications and a resume to: Alaina Walton, Associate Director of Programs, Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund, 2025 M Street, NW, Suite 610, Washington, D.C. 20036, awalton@apiasf.org. Review of applications will continue until position is filled. No phone calls please.